Sunday, June 24, 2007

Washed Plesiosour image confirmed fake.

Someone sent us the photo at left of a plesiosaur washed up on a beach, and asked if we thought it was a fake.

Yes, we said. We do believe it is a fake. The first thing we noticed was that the lines along the back of the creature (leading down to its tail) are too sharp for a genuine photo. It's the digital equivalent of cutting out a picture of a Martian and pasting it on a photo beside George Bush. The cut-out will have sharp edges.

Likewise, when this photo was manipulated, the faker did not bother to blur the edges.

There is also a ghostly patch at the top end of the shadow of the person waling along the beach, as though someone or something has been erased.

But we asked the person who sent it to us for more information. Where did you get the photo? Where was it supposedly taken? Who is the photographer? When was the photo allegedly taken? Did any news media give it coverage? Who is the person walking along the beach?

We did not receive this information.

Since that time, a number of people have written to us about this photo. We thank the people who told us it was a megamouth shark. And that our conclusion was correct that the first photo we received had been faked.

Several people sent us the photo at right, which seems to be closer to the original genuine source.

It appeared on the web at and was identified as a megamouth shark from South Africa, 20th April 2002. (Although it now seems to have been replaced on that site with other photos.)

There is even a video clip about it on the Discovery website at

You will notice several important differences between the original and the fake — particularly the give-away “megamouth” that has been shaved in the fake to make it look more like a plesiosaur.

Thanks to Mike@Baby Jack of N. Jersey for the info

Saturday, June 23, 2007

Firday the 13th. Supersitious or Reality

Paraskavedekatriaphobia, also known as fear of Friday the 13th is very common throughout the world. Is this phobia based in fact, or is it just a silly superstition?

The number 13 is significant whether you consider it to be unlucky or not. Many believe it to be unfortunate
  • There were 13 present at the Last Supper.
  • Loki crashed a party of 12 at Valhalla, which ended in Baldur’s death.
  • Oinomaos killed 13 of Hippodamia’s suitors before Pelops finally, in his own shady way, defeated the jealous king.
  • In ancient Rome, Hecate’s witches gathered in groups of 12, the Goddess herself being the 13th in the coven.
  • Line 13 was even omitted from the Code of Hammurabi.
  • Christ was allegedly crucified on Friday the 13th.
  • On Friday, October 13, 1307, King Philip IV of France ordered the arrests of Jaques de Molay, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, and sixty of his senior knights.
  • In British custom, hangings were held on Fridays, and there were 13 steps on the gallows leading to the noose.
A recent whimsical little serial killer study showed that the following murderers all have names that total thirteen letters:
  • Theodore Bundy
  • Jeffrey Dahmer
  • Albert De Salvo
  • John Wayne Gacy
With a little stretch of the imagination, you can also fit ‘Jack the Ripper’ and ‘Charles Manson’ into that equation.

The following are things that modern Paraskavedekatriaphobes point to in order to justifying their fears.
  • Modern schoolchildren stop their memorization of the multiplication tables at 12.
  • There were 13 Plutonium slugs in the atomic bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki.
  • Apollo 13 wasn’t exactly the most successful space mission.
So, what do you think? Is the number thirteen evil or is Paraskavedekatriaphobia complete hoakum?

Courtesy of Dr Fong Research

Wednesday, June 13, 2007

Fenomena kerasukan dan histeria

Kita sering mendengar pelbagai kes serta cerita mengenai fenomena histeria atau kerasukan makhluk halus. Tetapi pernahkah kita cuba mengetahui apakah yang sebenarnya dimaksudkan dengan 'histeria' dan 'kerasukan'? Mengikut pengertian, histeria bermaksud gangguan neurosis yang mempunyai pelbagai gejala dan tanda, yang mungkin berbentuk emosi atau fizikal akibat dari perasaan takut atau gembira yang melampau, sedangkan rasuk merujuk kepada perbuatan merasuk, mengapit atau memadankan dua objek atau sebagainya (contoh tanggam pada tiang atau struktur binaan), bertujuan untuk memberi keteguhan pada struktur sesuatu, tetapi mengikut pengertian bidang paranormal ia lebih merujuk kepada kemasukan sesuatu unsur halus seperti Jin atau roh/semangat kedalam tubuh mangsa. Sungguhpun demikian, umumnya kedua istilah sering tersilap tafsir dan dianggap sama maksudnya.

Histeria selalunya diakibatkan oleh tekanan perasaan atau fikiran yang terlampau serta dipengaruhi keadaan sekeliling. Kebiasaanya histeria seringkali berlaku pada remaja samada yang masih menuntut, menjalani sesuatu latihan atau program, ataupun akibat dari perasaan ketakutan pada sesuatu atau pengalaman yang kadangkala memberi tekanan baik pada emosi atau minda. Kes-kes yang sering didengar selalunya berlaku di sekolah, universiti atau kem. Apabila seseorang itu menghadapi tekanan emosi atau minda tetapi tidak meluah atau menceritakan masalahnya menjangkau pada had-had tertentu, ledakan berlaku secara mendadak di luar kawalan seperti apa yang sering kita lihat sebagai contoh meracau, menjerit, kekejangan, mencederakan diri dan sebagainya, malah ada yang berakhir dengan tindakan luar kawalan hingga menyebabkan kes bunuh diri atau sebaliknya.
Apabila berlakunya ledakan emosi luar kawalan, individu terbabit mungkin akan menyebabkan pihak sekeliling panik lalu terikut-ikut dan sindrom ini seolah-olah seperti suatu gelombang wabak (wave plague) yang menyerang setiap individu berdekatan. Persoalannya, adakah histeria boleh merebak atau menular? Jika dilihat dari pelbagai faktor, sebenarnya histeria beradius besar (massive) adalah akibat dari perasaan terkejut atau shock pihak kedua sehingga terbawa-bawa kedalam diri mereka. Sebagai contoh kes yang pernah berlaku di sekolah atau kampus walhal sebenarnya hanya seorang saja yang benar-benar mengalami tekanan atau kemurungan. Menurut Julia Borossa, seorang pensyarah serta penulis buku yang berkaitan dengan bidang psychoanalysis, histeria ialah

a descriptive category, has been applied in a variety of ways, across historical periods and cultural contexts. Puzzlingly, its referent has been simultaneously an illness with strange symptoms and certain disturbing forms of behaviour. Attempts to account for 'hysteria' have included pointing to a particular affliction which causes the womb to 'wander', to patients' propensity to lie and manipulate, to lesions of the nerves, to ecstatic states, to demonic possession, to forms of protest, to inexplicable epidemics. Artistic expression, seductiveness, wanting things in excess, behaving in a socially inappropriate way, partaking in crazes - all these have attracted the epithet 'hysterical'. Whether malady or maladjustment, the possibility of meaning many things in many ways runs through both usages of the term, which roughly correspond to the clinical and the common usages. Indeed, as we shall see, the two inform and shape one another. While the word 'hysteria' remains in current use, the formal diagnosis of hysteria, with its particular symptomatology, has largely ceased to be deployed in the course of the 20th century. However, the very symptoms that comprised hysteria have by no means disappeared, but are merely discussed and described elsewhere and otherwise.

As an illness, hysteria has had a long-standing association with the feminine. Although male sufferers were, at times, identified and discussed, it has primarily been seen as a women's disorder. A key aspect of hysteria's manifestation was that it involved the sufferer's body, in a way that was changeable, and could not be put down to any tangible cause. Some of the classic symptoms of hysteria included: a feeling of suffocation, coughing, dramatic fits, paralysis of the limbs, fainting spells, but also sudden inability to speak, loss of hearing, forgetting one's mother tongue, being proficient in languages that one did not know one knew, persistent vomiting and inability to take in food. In sum, it was a disease which appeared irrational, untrustworthy, and difficult to control.

The 19th century was the period of hysteria's heyday, and it was then that the metaphorical slippage between symptom and behaviour, the illness and its sufferers, came to the fore. Its direct effect was to unveil the location of hysteria within the realm of sexual politics. Within a predominantly patriarchal world-view, the hysteric came to embody femininity itself, as problem and enigma. This is the position from which Sigmund Freud approached her. The question, 'What does woman want?', which he famously posed in one of his late papers, can be seen as a continuation of his fruitful confrontation with the puzzling illness he first studied as a young doctor. Indeed, it is no exaggeration to state that Freud's encounter with hysteria and the hysterical patient lies at the very origin of psychoanalysis. Among psychosomatic conditions, only hysteria, with its unique expressiveness and ability to symbolise conflict and distress in a kind of alternate language, would fit the bill and prove to be, along with dreams, 'the royal road to the unconscious'.

Menurut Charcot pula, seorang pakar neurologi dari Perancis, beliau berkata:

"hysteria was caused by a functional disorder of the brain which caused symptoms, and which also rendered patients suceptible to hypnosis so that new symptoms can be produced by suggestion. Charcot, Later became more interested in the probablity of a psycological cause as a result of clinical studies by his pupil, Pierre Janet, who proposed that the disorder in hysteria has a tendency to dissociate, i.e. to loose the normal integration between various parts of mental functioning, together with a restriction of personal awareness so that the person became unaware of certain aspectes of psychological functioning that would otherwise be within his awareness.

It is a illness known from the time of Greeks, although down through ages it has changed its meaning and dimension. Originally it was thought to be a women's disease, as the word hysteria signifies 'uterus', the uterus moved from one part of the body to another because of sexual frustration.

The hysterical reaction in modem psychopathology is explained as serving defensive function by which the individual escapes or avoids stressful situations. As a neurotic disorder, the symptoms of hysteria can take the form of widest variety. Although at one point of time the diagnosis of hysteria was not that frequent perhaps because medical knowledge had not advanced so much, the same has considerably changed nowadays.

Hysteria can be clinically grouped under two types: conversion and dissociate - in conversion hysteria the afflicted person can present physical symptom of psychological origin. In the absence of organic cause, the symptoms and features are intriguing and enigmatic.

Feature of hysteria are:
1. There can be hysterical convulsion (fit). 2. Sensory disturbances-loss of sensitivity. 3. Hypoesthesis (partial loss of sensitivity). 4. Hyperesthesis (excessive loss of sensitivity). 5. Analgesia (loss of sensitivity to pain) 6. Paresthenia (exceptional sensation, such as tingling)

It includes blur of vision, photophobia, double vision, night blindness, and defective steropsis. The heart disturbances from total deafness to' selective one has also been found as conversion symptoms.

The visceral symptoms of this disorder are headache, lumps in the throat, choking sensation, coughing spells, bleaching nausea, sneezing, difficulty in breathing etc. Another enigmatic conversion syndrome. is pseudociasis (false pregnancy) in women who develop morning sickness, absence of period, fullness of breast, and bulging belly without being pregnant.

The dissociate hysteria, on other hand, is also a manifestation of underlying conflict. This is an escape behavior in which the individual gratifies his urges but denies the personal responsibility of his unacceptable behavior. There is a difference between hysterical amnesia and amnesia caused by brain pathology. In the later the registration and storage of infornation are impaired where as in the former the recall of registered infonnation is affected although the forgotten material is intact, beneath the conscious level.

Somnambulism is also another type of disorder where the individual walks in sleep but when he gets up the following morning does not remember the event. Fague called it "split personality". The two personality works independently in the same individual, one having no knowledge of the other. Multiple personality has similar features of dissociative hysteria. There may be one or more two personalities in an individual but their functions differ from one another, and no awareness of existence of the other"

Charcot ketika mengadakan demonstrasi mengenai histeria 1885

Bagaimana pula halnya tentang kes 'kerasukan'? Bagi paranormal dan dari segi pegangan agama, tidak kira apa pun, kerasukan merujuk kepada jisim halus yang memasuki tubuh lalu mengakibatkan perubahan 'host' atau perumah yang ketara seperti perubahan suara, meracau atau meronta, perubahan memek muka serta pertuturan dan sebagainya. Kerasukan sering berlaku pada gadis remaja ataupun dewasa dan ada diantara kes melibatkan lelaki. Pelbagai kaedah serta cara rawatan untuk memulihkan si mangsa atau pesakit dan ianya bergantung kepada pegangan kepercayaan agama masing-masing. Tetapi apa pula penjelasannya menurut sains? Menurut Melissa A. Bromwell, salah seorang pengkaji perubatan dan metafizik, beliau memberikan beberapa pandangan mengenai fenomena 'kerasukan' ini. Menurut beliau, kerasukan adalah:

"strange physical ailments or disfigurements; verbal outbursts, mostly obscene or sacrilegious in nature; violent behavior and vulgar behavior; bodily spasms and contortions; ability to speak languages never before studied; self-mutilation; "superhuman" abilities such as psychic abilities, abnormal strength, or an ability to perform behaviors out of the realm of human possibility such as levitation; cessation of normal bodily functions for periods of time, including breathing and heart beat; and a pronounced revulsion to symbols, places, people, objects, and ceremonies having any religious context. Other phenomena associated with the presence of a demon include an acrid stench; marked decrease in the temperature of the room which a possessed individual occupies; writing appearing out of nowhere; sounds and voices arising from nowhere; and objects moving on their own and destruction of objects in the room, without anyone having laid a hand upon them ((2), (3).

Despite the striking quality of this description, the expansion of the fields of medicine and psychology has led to diagnoses other than demonic possession for individuals who present circumstances similar to those mentioned above. These sorts of cases are now readily explained in terms of abnormal functioning in the brain and nervous system. There are various disorders which may mimic demonic possession; these include schizophrenia (and other periods of psychosis), dissociative identity disorder, and Tourette syndrome ((4).

Schizophrenia is characterized by the presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, affective flattening or inappropriate emotional responses, avolition, and alogia. General psychotic episodes, such as might accompany mood disorders, can also closely simulate a state of demonic possession by hallucinations or delusions. The delusions can be ones of thought insertion, thought broadcasting, delusions of guilt, delusions of grandeur, such as being God (or a demon), or delusions that God (or a demon) is speaking to the person and giving commands for a special mission (5).

The resemblance between several of these criteria and demonic possession is rather striking. The inappropriate emotional displays seen in psychoses correspond to those frequently documented in cases of demonic possession where the possessed individual expresses either flattened affect or outbursts of extreme affects; a possessed individual will often laugh at situations which are morbid, such as injury to another individual, or crying and screaming when there appears to be no appropriate stimulus for such a response, such as being presented with a crucifix or holy water (6).

Psychosis is generally thought of as a break with reality; society will frequently consider individuals who believe themselves to be possessed as delusional and not "in touch with reality." An individual who appears to be possessed and claims to be a demon may be viewed as suffering from a delusion of grandeur. Family members and friends caring for possessed individuals can become extremely disturbed by the state in which the individuals present themselves and often request an exorcism as a last resort. One might think of this as an example of Folie à Deux, in which one individual develops a delusion while in a close relationship with another person who already has an established delusion; the delusion is of the same content for each individual (5). It is possible that the possessed individual initially suffers from a delusion and eventually convinces loved ones that the possession is real.

The paranoid thinking present in many instances of psychosis is similar to that of an individual who is possessed and fears all items, people, and situations that contain religious themes. An individual who is possessed will react violently to the presentation of anything with a religious context, out of fear that harm will come to them; the reaction is elicited merely from being exposed to something such as a Bible or a priest. The disorganized thinking and speech that often occurs during periods of psychosis may also resemble the seemingly nonsensical speech a possessed individual may show (6).

Individuals who suffer from schizophrenia predominantly marked by catatonic behavior often arrange their bodies in bizarre or inappropriate postures for long periods of time; they frequently engage in stereotypic motor activity or have very prominent mannerisms and facial expressions. Conversely, these individuals might refrain from any movement whatsoever for prolonged periods of time, as if in a trance. This might be similar to the bodily contortions and exaggerated expressions of emotion noted in cases of demonic possession, as well as to the hypnotic-like state observed in possessed individuals (1).

The superhuman strength often exhibited by individuals who are possessed might be explained by the presence of a bipolar disorder; bipolar disorders are frequently accompanied by psychosis, particularly during the manic episodes. Manic individuals exhibit abundant amounts of energy and often have abnormal strength, similar to what can be seen in an individual who is possessed.

Schizophrenia, or any form of psychosis, is currently thought to be the result of a malfunctioning dopaminergic system, either a system which is too active or a system which is too sensitive. The dopamine system has been implicated in movement and coordination, emotional response, and the ability to experience pleasure and pain (7). It would then seem quite likely that many purported cases of demonic possession are merely instances of dopamine systems failing to work properly, given the aforementioned abnormal motor and affect behavior. It also seems quite plausible that individuals who believe themselves to be possessed are in a state of severe ahedonia.

Another disorder which has frequently been misdiagnosed as demonic possession is dissociative identity disorder, formerly known as multiple personality disorder. The criteria for this disorder is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states, each with its own way of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and the self; at least two of these personalities or identities recurrently take control of the individual's behavior; and an inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be dismissed as ordinary forgetfulness (8). The separate identities involved in this disorder and the physical changes that denote dissociation could certainly reflect the abrupt change in personality manifested by those who appear to be victims of demonic possession (9).

A demon in someone who is possessed has its own purpose, own beliefs, morals, and attitudes, mannerisms, even its own style of speech, including a different voice. Each of these is distinct from those of the individual prior to possession and to an observer, it is clear that a change has occurred in the individual. In addition, an individual who suffers from demonic possession may not be able to recall the periods of time in which the demon manifests itself, resulting in blackouts and time loss (6). This is quite comparable to the manifestation of multiple personalities, each unique from the other, in an individual with dissociative identity disorder. The different personalities also have different motivations, ways of behaving, types of knowledge, and types of speech. The differing speech patterns between identities might partially explain the phenomenon of "speaking in tongues" often witnessed in victims of demonic possession. Time loss and blackouts are also extremely common to individuals with dissociative identity disorder; the unrecalled periods of time occur when another personality is in control (10).

Extreme suggestibility and hypnotizability are prevalent among individuals with dissociative identity disorder, which may be important if someone has suggested to an individual with the disorder that they are not mentally ill, but are in fact possessed by a demon. An individual with dissociative identity disorder who has had this suggested to them might come to believe they are inhabited by a demon (11).

Motor activities common to those with dissociative identity disorder include anesthesia, eye rolling (especially during switching to another personality), and pseudoseizures (11). These are behaviors that are commonly observed in individuals who are reported to be possessed by a demon; individuals who are possessed may be unable to feel pain in certain areas of their body and some of the distortions involved in possession include eyes rolling back and seizures (6).

The commonly accepted etiology of dissociative identity disorder is an early history of repeated trauma and abuse, often to horrific degrees (12). There is currently no biological theory concerning the origin of dissociative identity disorder; this creates both a direction for future investigations into the disorder and a possibility that demonic possession is an occurrence that cannot be explained in terms of the brain.

Another disorder that has probably been mistaken for demonic possession throughout time is Tourette syndrome, characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics (13). Motor tics can range in complexity from eye blinking to sticking out the tongue to rapid jerking of the body and writhing. The vocal tics can be sounds such as coughing, barking, growling or repeating words and phrases over and over again. Perhaps the most well-known symptom of Tourette syndrome is coprolalia, the screaming of obscene and foul language (14).

It is obvious how these behaviors can be misinterpreted as demonic possession; possessed individuals are often described as flailing and thrashing about and shouting obscenities, sexually aggressive phrases, violent threats, and sacrilegious statements.

There is also a high rate of comorbidity with obsessive-compulsive disorder in individuals who have Tourette syndrome (14). It seems likely that there would be a high frequency rate of obsessions with religion in individuals who claim to be possessed by a demon.

The origins of Tourette syndrome are thought to lie in either the dopaminergic system or the noradrenergic system. It is believed that the disorder results from either supersensitivity in the dopamine receptors or hyperactivity in the functioning of the norepinephrine system (14).

The concordance of the putative biological causes of schizophrenia and Tourette syndrome seem to imply some type of connection between the two disorders, and the phenomenon which they both imitate, i.e., demonic possession. It also lends credence to the belief that the brain is responsible for types of behavior which may initially seem remarkably beyond the realm of normal human behavior.

However, there is quite a bit about supposed demonic possession which cannot yet be explained by biology. This category includes such phenomenon as levitation, wounds appearing upon the victim that have not been inflicted by the self or another concrete source, knowledge of languages never before studied, sometimes never even heard, and psychic abilities such as knowing facts about other individuals that have never been met. In addition, the accompanying situations related to the area around possessed individuals do not seem to be explainable in terms of the brain or any aspect of biology; science cannot yet explain the distinct decrease in temperature of the room the individual occupies, the appearance of writing and sounds from an unseen force, and the movement of objects on their own (2).

One can come to two conclusions when faced with this evidence. The first is that the cause of such circumstances will eventually be determined by further study of the brains of reportedly possessed individuals. This might reveal that there is something biologically (and entirely secularly) unique about such individuals which allows them to be capable of creating such phenomena by themselves; in this case it could be determined that demonic possession is nothing but a myth perpetuated for centuries. On the other hand, the possibility that demonic possession is a real occurrence cannot yet be rejected; no thoroughly decisive evidence exists to the contrary. What is currently known about science cannot fully explain every situation reported to be a case of demonic possession, at least not by the methods which science currently employs. Until science can explain each detail, if indeed it ever can, one cannot dismiss the possibility that demonic possession is a real and true phenomenon".

Terdapat pelbagai lagi pendapat serta teori dan penjelasan mengenai histeria serta fenomena kerasukan. Tapi apa yang ingin cuba dijelakan disini ialah kesedaraan individu untuk menilai sesuatu perkara samada ianya benar atau khayalan serta sengaja dibuat-buat untuk mendapat perhatian orang lain (sympathy) kerana telah banyak kes-kes yang serupa apabila dijalankan diagnosis ternyata kebanyakan mangsa mempunyai sejarah tekanan perasaan serta mental dan ada pula fenomena kerasukan yang memang tidak dapat dijelaskan melalui sains. Jika ini berlaku maka campurtangan bidang agama adalah disyorkan.

Artikel oleh

R Iskandar
ParaCrypt RSG

Monday, June 11, 2007

Does ancient astronaut really exist or just an imagination?

Before we talk about the ancient astronaut, let's look at some perspective of human culture and civilization. Since early times, human keep on searching the mysteries of nature and God's creation, and even visualized it into paintings, literatures and etc. But not all the same. Some creates thousand of questions of what the message or motives behind the art created, is it really meant that way or just puzzle for people to search and solve it?

UFO and aliens visiting the earth almost heard in every continent. Picture of alien's spaceship, soucer-like objects hovering the sky, unknown bright lights and many more can be found not only in the net, but even on tv network. Does it really exist? Do they ever visit the earth in ancient time? or just a fantacy and hallucination plague on human mind?

Let's look into some of the examples taken from literature, pantings and culture, in the search for the truth beyond the myth.


In the Vedic literature of India, there are many descriptions of flying machines that are generally called vimanas. These fall into two cate- gories:

(l) manmade craft that resemble airplanes and fly with the aid of birdlike wings, and

(2) unstreamlined structures that fly in a mysterious manner and are generally not made by human beings.

The machines in category (l) are described mainly in medieval, secular Sanskrit works dealing with architecture, automata, military siege engines, and other mechanical contrivances. Those in category (2) are described in ancient works such as the Rg Veda, the Maha-bha-rata, the Rama-yana, and the Pura-nas, and they have many features reminis- cent of UFOs.


Painting of the Madonna and Saint Giovannino, in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, attributed to the 15th Century school of Filippo Lippi. Photographs courtesy of CUFOS


14th century tapestry

These two tapestries were created in the 14th century. Both depict the life of Mary. Hat shaped objects can be clearly seen in both tapestries. The one on the left was created in 1330. The one on the right is entitled The Magnificent. Both are located at the French basillica Notre-Dame in Beaune, Burgundy.


This is the only picture of the Dropa people available.

The Dropa (also known as Dropas, Drok-pa or Dzopa) are, according to certain controversial writers, a race of dwarf-like extratrestrials who landed near the Chinese-Tibetan
border some twelve thousand years ago.

  • Local legends corroborate the story of a tribe of ugly, big-headed dwarfs coming from the clouds.
  • There are supposed Dropa and Ham tribes which are true pygmies with average height around 4'2" and with a weight between 38 and 52 pounds.
  • Some tribes do claim to come from other worlds, however, this alien belief also happens in many primitive tribes around the world.
The story start when Chi Pu Tei, a professor of archaeology at Beijing University, and his students were on an expedition to explore a series of caves in the pathless Himalayan mountains of the remote Bayan-Kara-Ula in Qinghai on the border of China and Tibet. The caves may have been artificially carved to be a system of tunnels and underground storerooms. The walls were squared and glazed, as if cut into the mountain with great heat.

They found many neat rows of tombs with short 4 ft 4 in inch skeletons buried within. The skeletons had abnormally big heads, and small, thin, fragile bodies. A member of the team suggested that these might be the remains of an unknown species of mountain gorila. Prof. Chi Pu Tei was said to respond, "Who ever heard of apes burying one another?"

There were no epitaphs at the graves, but instead hundreds of one foot wide stone discs ("Dropa Stones") were found having 3/4 inch wide holes in their centers. On the walls were carved pictures of the rising sun, moon, stars, the land, mountains, and lines of pea-sized dots connecting the earth with the sky. Along with the discs, the cave drawings had been determined to be about 12,000 years old.

Skeptics note, however, a number of problems with the case (and a lack of corroborative evidence), which offers significant doubt as to the reality of the more sensationalistic Dropa claims. Mainstream critics argue that the entire affair is a hoax.



The Nasca Lines are one of humanity's mysteries. They are located in the Pampa region of Peru. They are the most outstanding group of geoglyphs in the world. Etched in the surface of the desert pampa sand about 300 hundred figures made of straight lines, geometric shapes and pictures of animals and birds - and their patterns are only clearly visible from the air. They were built by a people called the Nasca- but why and how they created these wonders of the world has defied explanation. In 1969, Erich von Daniken floated the idea that airborne extraterrestrials might have laid out the lines as runways for their aircraft.


This picture details the events of August 7, 1566, in Basel, Switzerland. The spheres appeared at sunrise, 'Many became red and fiery, ending by being consumed and vanishing', wrote Samuel Coccius in the local newspaper on this date. A 16th century woodcutting depicts a scene in which dark spheres were witnessed hovering over the town of Basel, Switzerland in 1566


This 14th century Fresco painting entitled 'The Crucifixion' depicts a man in some kind of craft looking back over his shoulder. From Kosovo / Yugoslavia

"Baptism of Jesus" by Aert De Gelder, 1710 A.D

"Baptism of Jesus" by Aert De Gelder in about 1710 AD. These are craft seen by many thousands of people today all around the world.



A French medal apparently commemorating a UFO sighting of a wheel like object in 1680. Artist and location unknown.



Painting from flemish artist Aert de Gelder (1645-1727), Rembrandt disciple, supposed to show the baptism of Jesus in river Jordan, entitled "The Baptism of Christ". It was painted in 1710 and hangs in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. A disk shaped object is shining beams of light down on John the Baptist and Jesus.

Oil on canvas, 48.3 x 37.1 cm. Given by Lord Alwym Compton, Bishop of Ely, 1905. Prov: Marianne, Countess of Alford, 1888.


Val Camonica

Paintings on stonewalls in Val Camonica, North Italy, showing beings seemingly wearing a glasslike helmet from which short rays are emitted.

"The Annunciation" by Carlo Crivelli, 1486 A.D.

Sunday, June 10, 2007

Ancient astronaut comment

Image of the Mayan's stone carving showing the capsule-like thing and the man inside.

The term 'ancient astronauts' designates the speculative notion that aliens are responsible for the most ancient civilizations on earth. The most notorious proponent of this idea is Erich von Däniken, author of several popular books on the subject. His Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past, for example, is a sweeping attack on the memories and abilities of ancient peoples. Von Däniken claims that the myths, arts, social organizations, etc., of ancient cultures were introduced by astronauts from another world. He questions not just the capacity for memory, but the capacity for culture and civilization itself, in ancient peoples. Prehistoric humans did not develop their own arts and technologies, but rather were taught art and science by visitors from outer space.

Where is the proof for von Däniken's claims? Some of it was fraudulent. For example, he produced photographs of pottery that he claimed had been found in an archaeological dig. The pottery depicts flying saucers and was said to have been dated from Biblical times. However, investigators from Nova (the fine public-television science program) found the potter who had made the allegedly ancient pots. They confronted von Däniken with evidence of his fraud. His reply was that his deception was justified because some people would only believe if they saw proof "The Case of the Ancient Astronauts,"

However, most of von Däniken's evidence is in the form of specious and fallacious arguments. His data consists mainly of archaeological sites and ancient myths. He begins with the ancient astronaut assumption and then forces all data to fit the idea. For example, in Nazca Peru, he explains giant animal drawings in the desert as an ancient alien airport. The likelihood that these drawings related to the natives' religion or science is not considered. He also frequently reverts to false dilemma reasoning of the following type: "Either this data is to be explained by assuming these primitive idiots did this themselves or we must accept the more plausible notion that they got help from extremely advanced peoples who must have come from other planets where such technologies as anti-gravity devices had been invented." His devotion to this theory has not dwindled, despite contrary evidence, as is evidenced by still another book on the subject, Arrival of the Gods : Revealing the Alien Landing Sites at Nazca (1998).

There have been many critics of von Däniken's notions, but Ronald Story stands out as the most thorough. Most critics of von Däniken's theory point out that prehistoric peoples were not the helpless, incompetent, forgetful savages he makes them out to be. (They must have at least been intelligent enough to understand the language and teachings of their celestial instructors--no small feat!) It is true that we still do not know how the ancients accomplished some of their more astounding physical and technological feats. We still wonder how the ancient Egyptians raised giant obelisks in the desert and how stone age men and women moved huge cut stones and placed them in position in dolmens and passage graves. We are amazed by the giant carved heads on Easter Island and wonder why they were done, who did them, and why they abandoned the place. We may someday have the answers to our questions, but they are most likely to come from scientific investigation not pseudoscientific speculation. For example, observing contemporary stone age peoples in Papua New Guinea, where huge stones are still found on top of tombs, has taught us how the ancients may have accomplished the same thing with little more than ropes of organic material, wooden levers and shovels, a little ingenuity and a good deal of human strength,. Nova's "Secrets of the lost Empires" made no appeal to alien teachers in the attempt to figure out how the ancient Egyptians might have raised a giant obelisk how the medieval warriors built their catapults and how & why the sculptors ofEaster Island did what they did.

We have no reason to believe our ancient ancestors' memories were so much worse than our own that they could not remember these alien visitations well enough to preserve an accurate account of them. There is little evidence to support the notion that ancient myths and religious stories are the distorted and imperfect recollection of ancient astronauts recorded by ancient priests. The evidence to the contrary--that prehistoric or 'primitive' peoples were (and are) quite intelligent and resourceful--is overwhelming.

Of course, it is possible that visitors from outer space did land on earth a few thousand years ago and communicate with our ancestors. But it seems more likely that prehistoric peoples themselves were responsible for their own art, technology and culture. Why concoct such an explanation as von Däniken's? To do so may increase the mystery and romance of one's theory, but it also makes it less reasonable, especially when one's theory seems inconsistent with what we already know about the world. And why restrict one's examples to Egypt, Mexico, and other non-European countries? What about the builders of Newgrange or Stonehenge? The ancient astronaut hypothesis is unnecessary. Occam's Razor should be applied and the hypothesis rejected.

Appreciation from the Admin

Since the blog first officialy registered, we received a lot of emails and articles from all of you the readers and freelance researchers and also the thinkers in the net. On behalf of the ParaCrypt Research and Study Group, we would like to thanks to the people, groups and individuals for all the efforts and the support towards the blog. We hope the blog will continously provides info and also research articles on related issues and fields. Thanks again to all of you. May the information and knowledge be shared. Thanks again.

ParaCrypt Admin Team

Ancient Astronaut or Mayan's religious belief?

Few years ago, I've read a book about ancient astronout and it was written by Eric Von Daniken, the world's most successful non-fiction writer of all time, who has written 26 books on the topic and has sold over 63 million copies worldwide and also has been translated into 32 languages. In the book that I've read, he mention about the ancient Mayan carving showing a man inside a space-like capsule. And after that theories of ancient Mayan's civilization knowledge of space was reveal. Some sort like that. But I'm lil bit confused bout the issue. Is it ture or just ancient animism belief or some kind of tribute to their king? Since in ancient times, a king mostly consider as the son of God, for example in Egyptians and Mayan civilization.

Karen- JB

Unknown carcass article (reply)

Reffering to the article on the unknown carcass of alleged sea monster, I would like to give some info on it. Till now the issue is still became small debate between scientist and believers. The story started when the weekly Karavan+Ya (Caravan+Me) published in the Russian city of Tver became widely popular seven years ago after it was first to report about a monster from Lake Brosno in the Andreapol District of the Tver Region. Since the first publication in the weekly, the news about a dinosaur from Brosno spread all over the world. Journalists from Moscow and from abroad were seeking sensational publications about the monster from the Russian province. Hundreds of publications and TV programs about the Brosno monster made the creature a world sensation. The Tver weekly Karavan from time to time organizes small expeditions to Lake Brosno to visit the mysterious creature that became so much popular thanks to the newspaper.

Numerous witnesses say that they saw a head of a big beast above water that looked like a dinosaur or a dragon head and a long thin tail. The people said that the creature was covered with scales like a reptile and was about five meters long.

Experts of the Kosmopoisk research association went for an expedition to Lake Brosno together with Karavan in the summer of 2002 and did echo deep sounding. Vadim Chernobrov, the Kosmopoisk coordinator said in an interview to the Moscow newspaper Argumenty i Facty (Arguments and Facts): "Echo deep sounding registered an anomaly. There was a huge jelly-like mass of a railway car size handing five meters above the bottom. The mass stood motionless. We waited for some time and then decided to make it move: we threw an underwater petard, a low capacity explosive device. When the device blew up, the creature started slowly going up. We starred at the water, and it was clear; there was nothing resembling a monster, however something unusual was still felt in the lake water."

Researchers, who believe that a mysterious big creature does live in Lake Brosno and who work on the mystery of the creature, say that Brosnya (this is the name given to the monster) cannot be a reptile. Otherwise, it would be frozen and died in the climate of the middle geographic zone when dormant. If the strange creature has come to life, it means it is a mammal and breeds through syngenesis. However, some problems arise in this connection. First of all, the lake is too small for an entire population of large predators to live and breed there. Second, a group of these big mysterious creatures needs much food, which is also a problem in the small lake. There is a hypothesis saying that some water systems join lakes, seas and oceans. If so, Scotland's Nessy may be a relative to Brosnya living in Russia's province.

It is rumored that the strange giant creature has been living the Lake Brosno for several centuries already. One of the legends says that the lake monster scared to death the Tatar-Mongol army that headed for Novgorod in the 8th century. Baty-khan stopped the troops to have some rest on the sides of Lake Brosno. Horses were let to drink water from the lake. However, when horses came down to the lake, a huge creature emerged from the water roaring and started devouring horses and soldiers. The Baty-khan troops were so terrified that they turned back, and Novgorod was saved. Old legends say that some enormous mouth devoured fishermen. Chronicles mention some "sand mountain" that emerged above the lake surface from time to time. Once, Varangians wanted to hide stolen treasures in the lake. But when they approached the small island, a dragon came to the surface from the lake and swallowed the small island up.

The terrible monster disturbed people's minds over the 18-19th century. It was rumored that the giant creature emerged on the lake surface in the evenings, but immediately submerged when people approached. It is said that during WWII the beast swallowed up a Fascist plane. Today, there are lots of witnesses who say they chanced to see Brosnya walking in the water. People say that it turns boats upside-down and has to do with disappearance of people.

Everything said by locals and tourists who witnessed Brosnya proves that the creature (either a dragon or a dinosaur) does exist. However, some people treat the issue skeptically and still say that the creature may be a mutant beaver or a giant pike of 100-150 years. Others conjecture that groups of wild boars and elks cross the lake from time to time. Do boars and elks dive and stay under water for a long time? However, local people witnessed neither boars, nor elks, and the Karavan newspaper and other expeditions spoke about some other creature.

There are some more scientific hypotheses concerning Brosnya. One of them is a gas version saying that when hydrogen sulphide goes up from the lake bottom it makes water boil up; this boiling in its turn resembles a dragon head. But the amount of hydrogen sulphide must be considerable to produce this effect. Other version says that there is a volcano in Lake Brosno that makes ejections on the water surface from time to time. It is well-known that there are several fractures at the bottom of the lake, the depth and the direction of the fractures cannot be defined. It is not ruled out that the volcano crater is inside of one of the fractures. This explains why the volcano, if it actually exists, has not been discovered yet.

Fishermen say that the underwater world of Lake Brosno has a structure of several levels. From time to time burbots and perchs can be found in the lake. This is strange at all that some sorts of fish can be found in the area at all. For example, herring can be found in a lake in Peno District in the Tver Region. This is strange that the sea fish may live in the lake at all. Smelt shoals from time to time can be found in Lake Brosno as well. The phenomenon of Brosnya can be explained from the physical point of view: huge smelt shoals are reflected on the water surface through refraction of light and produces the effect of a huge reptile head. Physicists say that any mirage appears in hot weather. Indeed, witnesses say that they came across Brosnya in summer. However, origin of the strange monster is still a mystery.

In November 1996, the Karavan weekly started an expedition to Lake Brosno in the Tver Region. The expedition consisted of writer and journalist from Tver Yeugeny Novikov, head of the Tver Regional Legislative Assembly's press-service Nikolay Ishchuk, journalist Marina Gavrishenko, photographer Anaida Jilavyan and editor-in-chief of the Karavan newspaper Gennady Klimov. In seven years after that expedition, we would like to know whether the people believe that the creature actually exists.

Gennady Klimov says: "The lake actually keeps some secret. When the depth of Lake Brosno was measured, it turned out that in some parts it was 120-160 meters deep. It means that Lake Brosno is the deepest in Europe. What is more, the lake belongs to the preglacial epoch that is why mysterious phenomena are quite possible in it. As for me, my concerns about the whole of the story are quite particular. I am interested in the mechanism according to which global myths arise. I say that the administration of the Andreapol District where the lake is situated could have been more adroit to form economy of the district depending upon the Brosnya myth. Today, I do not personally care if the creature exists or not. But this is a really precious myth from the point of view of the future. Much is spoken about monster called Brosnya in different parts of Russia and in other countries, but nothing is said here in the Tver Region where the creature "lives". It is believed that Loch Ness creature does exist. The whole of the county where is lives is connected with the creature myth. The nature here in the Tver Region is wonderful and pure. There is a unique technology of making and using myths. These technologies will be extremely important in the future."

Marina Gavrishenko, the journalist who took part in the expedition says: "At first sight, the whole of the monster story looks like a fairytale. After the expedition to Lake Brosno, I do believe that the place is actually mysterious. Stories told by witnesses prove this opinion. We met with local people who were perfectly sane and adequate. What is more, all legends about the mysterious monster trace the roots back to the old times. I am sure that legends and rumors cannot arise from nothing."

Nikolay Ishchuk, the head of the Tver Regional Legislative Assembly press-service says: "I do not believe in wonders. What we chanced to see at Lake Brosno is actually mysterious and incomprehensible. If the phenomenon can be explained with the laws of the planet's life, I believe this is a miracle indeed. I recollect our expedition to Lake Brosno and our attempts to take pictures of the creature as a wonderful journey. This is wonderful that people may have such interesting adventures. May it be so that the expedition actually came across some miracle? Inexplicable things must exist in this world. When people do not understand some things they want to know more and reveal more new facts."

But anyway, for my opinion and logicaly thinking based on the photo we have and the one that you posted, more of us believed it was not a sea or any kind of lake monster. It's more to a crocs look and of coz there are many species of salt water crocs in this world and it will not puzzle me if a carcass of a croc ends up on the shore. Perhaps it's drift up from the nearby river. And in additional info these are some of the reports which cause a controversial debates.

This creature was found by Russian soldiers on Sakhalin shoreline. Sakhalin area is situated near to Japan, it’s the most eastern part of Russia, almost 5000 miles to East from Moscow (Russia is huge). People don’t know who is it. According to the bones and teeth - it is not a fish. According to its skeleton - it’s not a crocodile or alligator. It has a skin with hair or fur. It has been said that it was taken by Russian special services for in-depth studies, and we are lucky that people who encountered it first made those photos before it was brought away.

The story has changed somewhat, as it was originally reported that the carcass was found by Russian fishermen, whereas here it was reportedly found by Russian soldiers. The initial description mentioned that the carcass was nearly 7 meters long, approximately 21 feet. It doesn’t appear to be that length in these photos.

So I guess, it's up to the rest of the readers and researcher to give their comments. Thank you.

Sofya, Russia

The Mexican Air Force UFO Affair: Aliens, Ball Lightning, or Flares?

On Friday, March 5, Mexican Air Force pilots filmed 11 unidentified flying objects in the skies over southern Campeche state, but the public was not notified of the sightings until Mexico’s Defense Department issued a statement to that effect on May 12. A press release was accompanied by a videotape that showed some bright objects resembling sharp points of light moving rapidly in what appeared to be a late-evening sky. The lights were filmed by pilots using infrared equipment during a surveillance mission in search of drug-smuggling planes. They were reportedly flying at an altitude of about 11,500 feet.

“Was I afraid? Yes. A little afraid because we were facing something that had never happened before,” said radar operator Lt. German Marin in a taped interview quoted in the press release. “I couldn’t say what it was … but I think they’re completely real,” added Lt. Mario Adrian Vazquez, the infrared equipment operator. Vazquez insisted that there was no way to alter the recorded images. The plane’s captain, Maj. Magdaleno Castanon, said the military jets chased the lights “and I believe they could feel we were pursuing them.” He added that when the jets stopped following the objects, they disappeared.

Accounts of what actually happened varied wildly. Skeptic publisher Michael Shermer appeared on CNN three times the week the story broke. “Initial reports indicated that the UFOs were only discovered upon later review of the footage after the flight,” Shermer said. “Subsequent reports stated that the pilots saw the UFOs during the flight, but nothing much was made of it until the infrared footage was later reviewed. Still later reports claimed that the pilots not only saw the UFOs during the flight, but that they chased them, were surrounded by them, but were unable continue the chase. It was like a fisherman’s tale, growing with each retelling.”

The UFOlogists glommed onto the story when a Mexican UFO investigator named Jaime Maussan presented the footage as proof of alien visitation, which he said he obtained from Mexican Secretary of Defense Gen. Ricardo Vega Garcia. “This is historic news,” Maussan told reporters. “Hundreds of videos (of UFOs) exist, but none had the backing of the armed forces of any country … The armed forces don’t perpetuate frauds.”

Other, more skeptical investigators suggested either ball lightning or a meteorite breaking up in the atmosphere as a possible explanation. Ball lightning is an interesting hypothesis, but at an altitude of 11,500 feet this would be the first known case of such a sighting, since ball lightning is typically reported at ground level or slightly above. The meteorite explanation is plausible, but unlikely because of the length of time the lights seem to hover in the atmosphere. Still other explanations have included satellite debris, secret military vehicles, and electrically ignited gas.

Drawing of Oil platform burning

Figure 1. Any single oil platform may have many extensions and towers for murning off flares. Note the boat included to give a sense of the scale of these enormous flares.

I would like to suggest something else entirely as the cause. I believe that the UFO lights were no more than oil platform burn-off flares. (See Figure 1.) This idea comes from Captain Alejandro Franz ( Based on his understanding of the area, and of the infrared camera direction, he suggests a significant relationship between the Bay of Campeche Cantarell oil platform flares and the UFO lights. These platforms have one or more elevated, boom-mounted and “ground’ level flares to burn off very large amounts of gas and waste products (see, for example, Villasenor R. 2003. “An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry,” Atmospheric Environment, August, vol. 37, no. 26, pp. 3713-3729(17),

Starting with Franz’ hypothesis, I attempted to confirm its feasibility. To see if the Campeche oil flares were significant light sources, I examined the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data for the area. DMSP satellites provide daily coverage of the Earth’s surface in the infrared and visible light spectrum. I then looked at the publicly accessible averaged year 2000 nighttime light sources database. Camera viewpoint data stored on the video showed that there was a very good correlation with the bright platforms. Unfortunately, the DMSP data did not resolve independent oil flares, so individual UFOs could not be matched.

To see if the UFO images matched existing oil flares all of the oil platform flares had to be geo-located. Transponder coordinates for some oil platforms were found, but this data source was of limited use, since a transponder was not likely located near the flares themselves. A platform could have multiple flares but only one transponder, or the transponder might be located some distance away on a non-flare part of the platform.

An Internet search revealed a freely available public archive of Landsat satellite datasets for the Campeche area. Datasets at a variety of wavelengths, in particular the short and long infrared, and at very good resolution (15-30 meters) were available. Detailed examination of these datasets allowed each oil platform flare (which clearly saturated the sensor elements) to be located. The data was several years old, so no new flares were included, and it was possible that some flares were inactive during the imaging. Using the flare coordinates, a 3D model of the camera field of view and flares was created and a very good match with the UFO images was demonstrated.

Figure 2. A Landstat image of the three oil platforms in the Campeche area off the coast of Mexico (Akal-C with 4 flares, Akal-J with 4 flares and Nohoch-A with 2 flares). The white lines indicate the narrow camera field during the video segment.

The best match of existing flares to UFO images occurred with the most complicated light grouping referred to as the “ten UFO” segment. These lights match the flares on three oil platforms (Akal-C with 4 flares, Akal-J with 4 flares and Nohoch-A with 2 flares). Figure 2 is a Landsat image of three of the platforms which were used in the analysis. The white lines were added to the image to show how narrow the camera field of view was during the time the UFO video was shot.

(Data used to generate the figure is available from U.S. Geological Survey, EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, SD. Source for this dataset was the Global Land Cover Facility

The 3D model required an assumed altitude for each flare (which is very important for the very narrow fields of view that they were videoed in). Both sea level and 100 foot flares were examined and were used to produce diagrams (A) and (B) in Figure 3. Diagram (C) shows the resulting best fits of high and low flares to the UFO images. The video frame for the time (D) is printed below the flare diagrams for comparison.

Figure 3. from top to bottom: (A) Flares as they would appear at sea level. (B) Additional flares as they would appear if located on 100 foot towers. (C) Choosing the best match from the above two options (D) A frame from the video image taken at 17:06:53 for comparison.

When the exact locations of the flares were known it was possible to determine their distance to the aircraft. The distance to the horizon as viewed from the given 11,500-foot altitude for this video segment is about 130 miles. The distance to the oil platforms ranges from 110 to 120 miles. Thus, the flares were probably viewed directly rather being mirage images from below the horizon. Of interest is that the 3D model demonstrated that the separation or splitting of “UFOs” during this segment is a result of one more distant flare seeming to move from behind a closer one due to the motion of the aircraft.

From this hypothesis a number of questions arise.

Why didn’t the crew see the lights?

The “ten UFO” lights were visible at very high zooms (i.e. just visible in Medium field of view = 3.6 degrees horizontal by 2.6 degrees vertical; larger and brighter in the Narrow field of view = .8 deg. by .6 deg.; best image in the Narrowest field of view= .4 deg. by .3 deg.) (Description of the Infrared Camera system on the aircraft), The human eye’s field of view is about 170 degrees by 80 degrees. Thus, a telephoto lens is needed to see that far away. Also, the human eye cannot see the infrared heat, which was likely a larger area than the visible light emitting area.

Why didn’t the crew ever see this before?

The most obvious explanation is that they had never flown so far north and looked in that direction with the infrared camera before. If they had flown about 20 miles further south, they would not have seen the “ten UFO” group. Also, flare smoke, haze, or clouds may have obscured images in the narrow camera field of view.

Why did the lights seem to be moving?

There are many clouds at various distances between the distant oil flares and the aircraft. This fact, and the very narrow field of view, gives the illusion of motion as the aircraft moves past the clouds. Camera angles confirm that there is little or no movement in what it is pointing at.

Why would an oil platform show up on radar?

The “ten UFO” segment did not have a radar return. During the remaining parts of the video, there are radar returns, some with an associated light, which seem to have the characteristics of aircraft.

Can the infrared camera see as far as the flares?

The field of view was very narrow for the “ten UFO” segment. Given an unobstructed viewpoint (no clouds, haze, or smoke), there should be no logical reason for the infrared camera to miss seeing a bright heat source. Some have proposed that a test flight be conducted by the Mexican Air Force in order to verify that the camera can really see the flares at distance. Although this suggestion is not without merit, it is both costly and controversial to use official funds to do this. Fortunately, Landsat data permitted the identification of an early UFO light that matched an on-shore set of flares. These flares at Atasta have four elevated flares and one ground flare (100m by 40 m!), which have at least the same brightness as the off-shore flares. The calculated distance to the Atasta flares was 82 miles. This was seen with a narrow field of view and the image size of the flare was much larger than the “ten UFO” lights. Thus, there is little stretch in asserting that the camera can see 120-mile distant flares.

Doesn’t the camera elevation for the “ten UFO” segment seem to aim above the horizon, thus placing them in the air?

The horizon is not visible during the “ten UFO” segment. During this segment, the crewmember operating the camera states that the “altitude” of the UFOs is above their own aircraft elevation, but this is based solely on the camera elevation because there was no radar contact. Thus, it becomes necessary to check the validity of the camera elevation reading. Attempts to check the calibration of the recorded camera angles using celestial, terrestrial, and aircraft geometry references indicate significant adjustments (2-5 degrees) are required. The implication is that the camera angle readings (analogous to motor/gear drive positions) are somewhat independent of the aircraft flight state and do not reflect the aircraft instrument reading. Assuming the camera gimbals are referenced to a fixed aircraft body coordinate system instead of aircraft flight axes, then knowledge of the aircraft angle-of-attack (affected by aircraft mass distribution and altitude change) or aircraft yaw angle (affected by prevailing wind direction) is required to properly convert the camera readings. Since the data is not available, it must tentatively be assumed that the tilt of the camera axis due to angle-of-attack may have produced the unusual camera elevation reading for the “ten UFO” segment.

Are there any UFOs in the video?

During the “ten UFO” segment, there are a few “UFOs” that may be flares that were not in the Landsat data. During the remaining parts of the video there are some UFOs (literally unidentified flying objects, and nothing more), but this is due to incomplete data. Some single lights have the characteristics of aircraft (movement and radar returns). Some seem to be at ground level and may be reflections off metal structures or sand banks.

Why did this event become such an issue?

A hypothesis is that the crew was following a legitimate target that happened to disappear near where the “ten UFO” group became visible, which they had not encountered in their flight experience before. The two events became tied together in the crew’s mind and the resulting excitement and fear caused them to view everything in terms of UFOs. Ultimately, they felt a responsibility to try to get an answer to this event. They and the Mexican Air Force must be thanked for revealing this event since it was informative, however it also demonstrates the woeful general state of basic UFO investigation and analysis.

James C. Smith,
Aerospace engineer
Fairfax, Virginia.

Article Reffering to Ezekiel sightings

a UFO as imagined by Blumrich

A UFO as imagined in late Josef Blumrich’s 1973 book The Spaceship of Ezekiel (Bantam. ISBN 0553083783). Unaware that Ezekiel had described God enthroned, Blumrich, a NASA rocket engineer, reinterpreted Ezekial’s description as a UFO. Blumrich worked on the Saturn 5 rocket, the Lunar Lander and on Skylab.

The Spaceships of Ezekiel

A perennial example of a supposed ancient record of extraterrestrial contact, used by authors asserting that alien astronauts visited the Earth in antiquity, is to be found in the first chapter of Ezekiel, in which that prophet, in exile near Babylon, recounts a vision (Ezek. 1:4–28):

As I looked, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, and a great cloud, with brightness round about it, and fire flashing forth continually, and in the midst of the fire, as it were gleaming bronze. And from the midst of it came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance: they had the form of men, but each had four faces, and each had four wings. Their legs were straight, and the soles of their feet were like the sole of a calf’s foot; and they sparkled like burnished bronze. Under the wings on their four sides they had human hands. And the four had their faces and their wings thus: their wings touched one another; they went straightforward, without turning as they went.

As for the likeness of their faces, each had the face of a man in front; the four had the face of a lion on the right side, the four had the face of an ox on the left side, and the four had the face of an eagle at the back. Such were their faces. And their wings were spread out above; each creature had two wings, each of which touched the wing of another, while two covered their bodies. And each went straightforward; wherever the spirit would go, they went, without turning as they went. In the midst of the living creatures was something that looked like burning coals of fire, like torches moving to and fro, like a flash of lightning. And the living creatures darted to and fro, like a flash of lightning.

Now as I looked at the living creatures, I saw a wheel upon the earth beside the living creatures, one for each of the four of them. As for the appearance of the wheels and their construction; their appearance was like the gleaming of chrysolite; and the four had the same likeness, their construction being as it were a wheel within a wheel. When they went, they went in any of their four directions without turning as they went. The four wheels rims were so high that they were dreadful and their rims were full of eyes round about. And when the living creatures went, the wheels went beside them; and when the living creatures rose from the earth, the wheels rose. Wherever the spirit would go, they went, and the wheels rose along with them; for the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. When those went, these went; and when those stood, these stood; and when those rose from the earth, the wheels rose along with them; for the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels.

Over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, shining like crystal, spread out above their heads. And under the firmament their wings were stretched out straight, one toward another; and each creature had two wings covering its body. And when they went, I heard the sound of their wings like the sound of many waters, like the thunder of the Almighty, a sound of tumult like the sound of a host; when they stood still, they let down their wings. And there came a voice from above the firmament over their heads; when they stood still they let down their wings.

And above the firmament over their heads there was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like sapphire; and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness as it were of a human form. And upward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as were gleaming bronze, like the appearance of fire enclosed round about; and downward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was a brightness round about him. Like the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about.

Such was the appearance of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face and I heard the voice of one speaking.

What most often strikes UFO enthusiasts as reminiscent of a spaceship, other than the fact that everything that’s in it is airborne, are the wheels. Before dealing with those specifically, however, let us consider the vision as a whole and see if the imagery of the ancient religions of the Near East isn’t a better fit as the source of Ezekiel’s vision than the imagery of a spaceship.

First of all, Ezekiel says he saw the apparition as a cloud coming on a wind from the north. The word translated as “north” is, in the original Hebrew, zaphon, a word that means “hidden” or “dark” and is only associated with the north as being a quarter of the compass that was gloomy and unknown. To the north of the civilized world in the perspective of the ancient near east lay wild barbaric lands out of which such nomadic peoples as the Cimmerians and the Scythians erupted to wreak havoc on the settled world. Thus the portent of the cloud is ominous or mysterious. However, zaphon is also the name of a locality, Mt. Zaphon in Lebanon, the home of the Canaanite gods. The patriarch of the Canaanite pantheon, El, was merged with Yahweh and is referred to in the Bible in the plural / intensive form Elohim. In fact the two names were often coupled as Yahweh Elohim, translated in the Bible as “the LORD GOD.” In co-opting El’s name, Yahweh also co-opted his wife, Asherah, whose image is constantly being removed from the Temple by strictly Yahwist kings such as Hezekiah and Josiah (2 Kgs. 18:4 and 23:6). Yahweh also would have been seen by his worshipers as taking over the sacred mountain of the Canaanite gods, Mt. Zaphon. Thus, the cloud that approaches from the north (zaphon) is both mysterious and holy.

Next, let us consider the living creatures within the flaming cloud. Though having the form of men, they have two sets of wings, four faces, and feet like calves’ hooves. This chimera-like anatomy has been glossed over by those seeing Ezekiel’s version as a spaceship. Their explanation is that the four faces are the faces of different alien beings looking out of different windows of the spacecraft. Given Ezekiel’s primitive mind-set, the argument goes, he certainly couldn’t have understood what he was seeing. However, for someone who was overawed by indescribable space aliens, Ezekiel was very precise and particular in describing what he saw.

the god Ninurat has four wings

Supernatural beings were typically shown with multiple wings throughout the ancient Near East. The god Ninurta has four wings (shown here in a stone relief found in the temple of Ninurta at Nimrud, Iraq).

Furthermore, his imagery fits that of the myths of the ancient near east. In an ancient relief from the Assyrian city of Nineveh, the god Ninurta is shown with four wings, just as the beings in Ezekiel’s vision have four wings. The wings of the four beings in the vision touched each other, which calls to mind the description of the cherubim in the Holy of Holies of Solomon’s temple in 1 Kings 6:27, 28:

He put the cherubim in the innermost part of the house; and the wings of the cherubim were spread out so that a wing of one touched the one wall and the wing of the other cherub touched the other wall; their other wings touched each other in the middle of the house. And he overlaid the cherubim with gold.

As with the cherubim flanking the Holy of Holies, the wings of the living creatures in Ezekiel’s vision touch each other. Solomon overlays the cherubim with gold, while the living creatures sparkle like burnished bronze. As to the four faces of the creatures in Ezekiel’s vision, these, too, hearken back to the cherubim and to Solomon’s temple. Lions and bulls are frequently mentioned as part of the imagery of the temple interior (1 Kings 7:25, 29, 36). Cherubim were often depicted as having men’s heads, the bodies of either lions or bulls — sometimes a lion’s fore parts and a bull’s hindquarters (hence the calf’s feet of living creatures of Ezekiel 1:7) — and the wings of eagles sprouting from their lion or bull shoulders.

The symbolism expressed in this depiction of the cherubim is one of supremacy: The eagle is the foremost bird, the lion the foremost wild beast, and the bull the foremost domestic beast. All of these, coupled with human intelligence (symbolized by the man’s head, or in Ezekiel’s vision, a face) were indications of the godlike power of the cherub. This word in the original Hebrew form is krubh, which is related to the Akkadian karibu, meaning an intermediary between gods and men, a divine messenger. The word for messenger in Greek, hence the word used to designate divine messengers in the Christian scriptures, which were written in Greek, was angelos. So the living creatures of Ezekiel’s vision were not bizarre four-faced space aliens. Nor were they a depiction of different alien species looking out of the portholes of a spaceship. They were angels.

the god Ninurat has four wings

The term cherubim in the Herbrew Bible refers not to our modern usage of “chubby young angels,” but to winged guardian figures, usually with a human head and the body of an animal. Shown here is an Assyrian guardinan figure wearing a horned crown that indicates his divinity.

The thrones of Phoenician kings often had arm rests in the shape of cherubim, signifying divine sponsorship of the king, and God is often depicted in the Bible as enthroned on the cherubim. That this is precisely what Ezekiel relates in his vision is made clear by the final description in this passage (Ezek. 1:26–28):

And above the firmament over their heads there was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like sapphire; and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness as it were of a human form. And upward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as were gleaming bronze, like the appearance of fire enclosed round about; and downward from what had the appearance of his loins I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was a brightness round about him. Like the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. Such was the appearance of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face and I heard the voice of one speaking.

God sits enthroned on a firmament resting on the cherubim. All of the symbolism fits that of the ancient near east. The firmament over the living creatures, upon which God sits enthroned, represents the firmament of heaven — the dome of the sky — to which the stars were fixed and over the surface of which the sun and moon traveled according to the ancient near eastern model of the cosmos. If anyone has any doubts that Ezekiel’s vision is of God enthroned upon the cherubim, consider what Ezekiel says in the final description in this passage (verse 28): “Such was the appearance of the glory of the LORD.” In the very next verse, Ezek 2:1, the voice of the one enthroned says to Ezekiel: “Son of man, stand upon your feet, and I will speak to you.” Always, in the Book of Ezekiel, when God speaks to the prophet, he opens by addressing him as “son of man” (ben adam in the original Hebrew).

Yet what is the significance of the wheels? As noted in the Anchor Bible’s commentary on Ezekiel, wheels before the invention of spokes were small solid disks with large axles. The large axle would have the appearance of a wheel within a wheel. While the wheels of chariots and most other vehicles of Ezekiel’s time had spokes, wheeled stands used within the temple often used the small old-fashioned wheels of earlier days. That the rims of the wheels were full of eyes again evokes the supernatural. The wheels are more metaphor than mechanical detail. So the wheels were yet another reference to temple imagery and holiness and were not flying saucers.

the god Ninurat has four wings

Solid wheels with large hubs on a chariot before the invention of spokes (from a panel depicting chariots Ur, Mesopotamia, ca. 2500 BCE).

However, to those who see Ezekiel’s vision as a UFO sighting, the phrase “a wheel within a wheel” suggests machinery. The wheel within a wheel is rendered as a “wheel in the middle of a wheel” in the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible, the word in Hebrew being tavek, meaning “to sever” or a bisection, in other words “in the center of.” In his 1970 book Chariots of the Gods? Erich von Daniken wrote (p. 56): “Ezekiel says that each wheel was in the middle of another. An optical illusion! To our present way of thinking what he saw was one of those special vehicles the Americans use in the desert and swampy terrain.”

Von Daniken went on to say that the vehicle was possibly a version of an amphibious helicopter. But are these wheels made from some form of rubber, as we would expect in such a vehicle? No. According to Ezekiel’s vision they have the appearance of chrysolite (Revised Standard Version or RSV) or beryl (KJV). Chrysolite is a yellow-green form of the mineral olivine and is sometimes used as a gemstone. Beryl is also a gemstone. It is noted for its hardness and comes in the form of green, yellow, pink, or white six-sided prisms. That means that light shines through it. The actual Hebrew word translated as chrysolite or beryl is tarshiysh, which can as well mean topaz (another yellow, transparent jewel) or merely a gem. The word is identical to the name of the city of Tarshish in Spain that symbolically stood for the uttermost west, or the ends of the Earth. So the substance called tarshiysh meant any exotic gemstone from far away. It seems odd that a machine that might be a form of amphibious helicopter would have wheels made of a yellowish translucent crystal.

Once we take away the “wheels within wheels” reference is there anything in Ezekiel’s vision that sounds like alien machinery? Possibly, depending on how certain words are translated. For example, “The creatures’ feet are not so much the feet of calves as they are those of bull-calves or young bulls.” In Hebrew the word is egal. But Hebrew has few words, and those words have many meanings. The ancient Israelites understood which meanings to use from how the word was used in a sentence, but the meanings aren’t always clear to us. Egal can also mean “round.” Since the beings’ legs were straight, could it be that the feet were round because the straight legs were actually metal columns with round bases? How can we know whether or not this is the case?

To answer that question we must remember that parts of the description of what Ezekiel saw can’t be viewed as separate from the rest of it, and we have to see if the images in the vision relate to anything else in the Bible. If the legs are metal columns, wouldn’t we expect the creature’s wings to also be like aircraft wings? In fact, they don’t seem to be either fixed wings or a picture of a whirling Helicopter propeller. The Hebrew word translated as “wings” is kanaph, meaning either a bird wing, an edge, or a flap of clothing.

If those who want to see the living creatures as space aliens would read more of Ezekiel they would find an almost identical vision in Ezekiel 10. There the prophet identifies the beings as cherubim, and says in verse 15 that they were the living beings he saw in his first vision.

Finally, let us consider what Moshe Greenberg said in his commentary on Ezekiel, 1–20, volume 22 of the Anchor Bible (p. 58):

Virtually every component of Ezekiel’s vision can thus be derived from Israelite tradition supplemented by neighboring iconography — none of the above cited elements of which need have been outside the range of the ordinary Israelite.

Ezekiel’s vision, so exotic and otherworldly to us, was something any of his compatriots in exile in Babylon would have understood easily. In fact, it is only when the vision is rendered in translation, rather than in the original Hebrew, coupled with modern readers’ unfamiliarity with the iconography of the ancient near east, that makes it possible for us today to mistake angels for spaceships.

painting: The Vision of Ezekiel, Raphael, 1518

The Vision of Ezekiel by Raphael, 1518

  • Greenberg, Moshe (commentator). 1983. Ezekiel, 1–20, Anchor Bible. Vol. 22. Albright, William Foxwell and David Noel Freedman (General Editors). Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. Inc.
  • May, Herbert G. and Bruce Metzger (eds). 1962. The Oxford annotated Bible (RSV). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Strong, James. 1890. Strong Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. Gordonville, TN: Dugan Publishers Inc.
  • von Daniken, Erich. 1970 Chariots of the gods New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.

Article By by Tim Callahan

Shared by David J Cornwall, Ohio